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 Milan
This is about the Italian city of Milan.

Milan (Milano in the Italian language, and Milán in Milanese dialect, from Latin, Mediolanum (with the meaning of "in the middle of the plain") is the main city in northern Italy, and is located in the plains of Lombardy, the most developed of Italian regions. It has about 1.3 million inhabitants (2004), but the Conurbation totals more than 4.5 millions and the Metropolitan Area (Great Milan: large more than 70 km and wide more than 60 km) totals about 7.5 million (is the 4th European greatest metropolitan area after London, Paris and the Rhur - 2005). Milan is the capital of Lombardy and the economic-financial capital of Italy. It has for many centuries been recorded as Mailand, which is still the German name of the city today.

Its province lies in the western part of Lombardy; it covers an area of 1,982 sq. km and has a population of 3,707,210 (2001 census); in 1991 the population was 3,738,685. The province comprises 188 communes, ranging in population (2001) from Milan Municipality (1,256,211) to Nosate (638); the city of Milan has lost 113,084 inhabitants (8,3%), from 1991 to 2001. The current mayor of Milan is Gabriele Albertini.

The town is famous for fashion firms and shops (via Montenapoleone) and the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele on the Piazza Duomo, reputed to be the world's oldest shopping mall. Milan is one of the world capitals of fashion, like New York or Paris. Another famed product of the city is the traditional Christmas sweet cake called Panettone.

Milan and Lombardy are candidate for the Summer Olympic Games of 2016 (Milan-Lombardy 2016).

History of Milan
It is presumed Milan was originally founded by the Celts of Northern Italy around 600 BC and was conquered by the Romans around 222 BC, who gave it the name of Mediolanum. In the 4th century A.D., at the time of the bishop Saint Ambrose and emperor Theodosius I, the city became for a short time the capital of the Western Roman Empire.

After the Ostrogothic and Lombard periods, the city re-gained its importance in the 11th century and led other Italian cities in gaining semi-independence from the Holy Roman Empire. During the Plague of 1349 Milan was one of the few places in Europe that was not touched by the epidemic. During the Renaissance Milan was ruled by dukes of the Visconti and Sforza families, who had artists like Leonardo da Vinci and Bramante at their service. After trying to conquer the rest of northern Italy in the 15th century, Milan was conquered by France, and then by Spain, in the early 16th century.

In the 18th century Austria replaced Spain as Milan's overlord, but during the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, which saw the city annexed into the French satellite states of the Cisalpine Republic, which itself became the Kingdom of Italy. After the end of the wars, the city became one of the main centers of Italian nationalism, reclaiming independence and the unification of Italy.

In 1859 (after the second of the Wars of Italian Independence) Austrian rule was ended by the kingdom of Sardinia (which transformed into the kingdom of Italy in 1861).

Being a critical industrial centre of Italy, Milan was target of continuos carpet bombing during World War II. The city was bombed even after Pietro Badoglio surrendered to the allied forces in 1943. In fact Milan was part of Mussolini's puppet state Italian Social Republic and an important command centre of the German Army stationed in Italy. When war in Italy was finally over, April 25, 1945, Milan was heavily damaged and entire neighborhoods like Precotto and Turro were radically destroyed. After the war the city was reconstructed and became again an important financial and industrial centre of Italy. See also: Rulers of Milan.

Economy
Milan is the centre of many financial businesses, and its hinterland is an avant-garde industrial area. Fiera Milano (http://www.fieramilano.com/), the city's Exhibition Center and Trade Fair complex is one of the most important in the world. A new fairground is under construction in the north-western suburb of Pero and Rho, due to be opened in May 2005. This is Europe's largest open construction project and will make Fiera Milano the largest trade fair complex in the world.

Famous Businesses of Milan
Giorgio Armani
Dolce & Gabbana
Prada
Gianni Versace
Pirelli
Telecom Italia
Fiera Milano
Alemagna
Alfa Romeo
Motta
Mediaset
Bugatti
Corriere della Sera
RCS (Rizzoli Mediagroup)
Mondadori Editore
ENI
Feltrinelli Editore
Ferrovie Nord Milano
Banca Intesa
Mediobanca



Airports
The city has a large international airport known as Malpensa International Airport (MXP), located in Varese, Italy and connected at the downtown with the railway service called "Malpensa Express" (from Cadorna Station). Milan has also the Linate Airport (LIN) within the city limits (for european-national traffic) and connected with BUS line 73 (from S.Babila). The small Orio al Serio Airport (BGY) in Bergamo is used only for charter, low-cost and cargo traffic. Put together, the three airports make Milan air travel capital of Europe, with more than 30 million passengers a year.

Subway and tramway
Milan has 3 subway lines (M1 - red, M2 - green, M3 - yellow) and the system, called Milan Metro - "M", runs for more than 80 km. There is also a light metro-service called "Metrò S.Raffaele", that connects the S.Raffaele Hospital with the Cascina Gobba station (M2).

Extensions of line 1, 2 and 3 are under construction, giving more than 15 km of track with 10 new stations. Line 5 is also under construction and will be finished in the first half of 2008. Line 4 (link with downtown and Linate Airport) and 6 are in planning stages.

Milan's transportation system (M-S-R Lines)
Milan also has one of the most extensive tramway system in the world, with more than 286 Km of tracks, that connect the Great Milan.

S Lines map.
Railway services
The Suburban Railway Service (called "S" Lines, the service is similar to French RER and German S-Bahn), composed by 8 suburban lines (10 from 2008), connects the Milan Metropolitan Area ("Great Milan"), and other cities, like Como or Varese. The Regional Railway Service (called "R"), instead, links Milan with the rest of Lombardy and with the national railway system.

Taxis
Milan has an efficient Taxi service, operated by private companies and licensed by the City of Milan (Comune di Milano). There is only one kind of taxis: white. Prices go up based on time elapsed and distance traveled.

Architecture & Places
Principal churches
Duomo (Milan cathedral)
Sant'Alessandro
Basilica di Sant'Ambrogio
Santa Maria delle Grazie (with Leonardo's "Last Supper")
San Babila
San Bernardino alle Ossa
Basilica di Sant'Eustorgio
Basilica di San Lorenzo
Pirelli Tower, MilanSan Marco
Santuario di Santa Maria dei Miracoli
Santa Maria del Carmine
Basilica di San Nazaro Maggiore
Santa Maria presso San Satiro
San Sebastiano
San Simpliciano
Santo Stefano Maggiore



Famous monuments
Alessandro Manzoni in Piazza San Fedele
Colonne di San Lorenzo
Disc of Pomodoro
Fontana del Piermarini in Piazza Fontana
Mazzini's monument in Piazza della Repubblica
Monumento Cinque Giornate
Napoleone of Canova in Brera
Statua di Oldrado da Trasseno del Palazzo della Ragione
San Carlo Borromeo in Piazza Borromeo
Leonardo's monument in Piazza della Scala
Roman amphitheatre (scant remains)
Archi di Porta Nuova
Leonardo da Vinci's Horse Statue at Hippodrome
"The Needle and the Yarn" in Piazza Cadorna

Principal architectures
Duomo
Castello SforzescoCastello Sforzesco (Sforza Castle)
Ca' Granda (University of Milan)
Palazzo della Ragione
Palazzo Reale
Teatro alla Scala
Central Station (the Italian biggest station)
Palazzo Serbelloni
Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II
Velasca Tower
Pirelli Tower (seat of Lombardy Region and the highest italian skyscraper)
New Milan Fair Complex of M. Fuksas (in Rho-Pero)
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Culture & Art

A greengrocer in central Milan with a sign in Milanese, the local dialect, claiming to be 'the oldest greengrocer of Milan' (l'ortolán püsee vêcc de Milan)Milan is the most important town in the world for Opera lirica, with its famous Teatro alla Scala (La Scala, theatre).

The Biblioteca Ambrosiana contains drawings and notebooks by Leonardo da Vinci among its vast holdings of books, manuscripts and drawings and is one of the main repositories of European culture. The city is also the home of the Brera Academy of Fine Arts.

In the church Santa Maria delle Grazie one of the most famous paintings of Leonardo da Vinci The Last_Supper (Leonardo) ("Cenacolo") can be found.

Museums & Exhibitions
Pinacoteca di Brera
Pinacoteca Ambrosiana
Galleria d'Arte Moderna
Triennale di Milano
Castello Sforzesco
Museo Egizio
Museo Poldi Pezzoli
Museo della Preistoria e Protostoria
Museo d’Arte Antica
Palazzo Reale
Museo Teatro alla Scala
Padiglione di Arte Contemporanea
Museo di Storia Naturale
Museo della Scienza e della Tecnica "Leonardo da Vinci"
Galleria Vinciana
Museo Bagatti Valsecchi
Museo degli Strumenti Musicali
Museo delle Arti Decorative
Museo Archeologico
Museo di Milano
Museo di Storia Contemporanea
Museo del Risorgimento



Theaters
Teatro alla Scala
Arcimboldi
Piccolo teatro
Teatro Lirico
Teatro Carcano
CRT - Teatro dell'Arte
Manzoni
Ventaglio Nazionale
Nuovo
Nuovo Piccolo Teatro
Piccolo Teatro di Milano
San Babila
Smeraldo
Ciak
Della 14a
Filodrammatici
Litta
Olmetto
Out Off
L'Elfo
Porta Romana
Franco Parenti
Teatro Studio
Verdi



Universities
Politecnico di Milano
Università Statale
Università Statale Milano-Bicocca
Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore
Università Bocconi
Scuola Superiore di Direzione Aziendale - Bocconi
Università I.U.L.M.
Università C.Cattaneo L.I.U.C.
Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele
L.U.C. Beato Angelico
Accademia delle Belle Arti di Brera
Conservatorio Superiore "G. Verdi" di Milano
Istituto Europeo di Design




Sports
The city is home of two world-famous football teams: A.C. Milan and Internazionale F.C. (located in Appiano Gentile-Como). The famous Monza Formula One circuit is located in the suburbs.

Olimpia Milano is a successful European basketball team that have won 3 European Cups, a World Cup, 3 Cup Winners' Cups, 2 Korac Cups and 25 National Championships.

The Amatory Rugby Club Milano have won 18 National Championships. Different ice hockey teams from Milan have won 29 National Championships between them.

Milan and Lombardy are candidate for the Summer Olympic Games of 2016 (Milan-Lombardy 2016).

Stadiums
Autodromo di Monza - car and moto racing - 137.000
San Siro - only football - 85.700
Arena Civica - Atlethic, Rugby, Football, 30.000
Brianteo - Atlethic, Football - 18.568
Ippodromo del Trotter - Horse Racing - 16.000
Ippodromo del Galoppo - Horse Racing - 15.000
Forum di Assago - Basket, Ice Hockey, Volley, Music - 13.000 to 16.000
Velodromo Vigorelli - Cycling, American Football - 12.000
MazdaPalace - Basket, Volley - 10.500
PalaLido - Basket - 5.000
Agorà - Ice Hockey - 4.000
Nuovo Giuriati - Rugby - 4.000


Communication & media
Newspapers
Corriere della Sera (daily)
Il Giorno (daily)
Il Giornale (daily)
Libero (daily)
Il Sole 24Ore (daily)
Milano Finanza (daily)
La Padania (daily)
La Gazzetta dello Sport (daily)
Metro (daily)


Magazines
Panorama (weekly)
La Settimana Enigmistica (weekly)
TV Sorrisi & Canzoni (weekly)
Oggi (weekly)
Marie Claire (weekly)
AnnaBella (weekly)
Explora (monthly)
Focus (monthly)


TV and radio
Mediaset (National Hdq)
RAI (Milan Regional Hdq)
MTV (South-Europe Hdq)
Sky Italia (National Hdq)
Radio Deejay (National Hdq)
Radio 1o1
Radio 105
Radio 24
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